Stability and differentiation in the European Union

search for a balance

Jaap W. de Zwaan

paperback/ gebrocheerd: € 16.00
ISBN: 9789462367852, August 2017, Engels
Formaat: 21.5 (h) x 13.5 (b) x 0.5 (d) cm. Gewicht: 76 gram.

Uitgever: Eleven international publishing


In this publication it is analysed how the European Union (EU) can best react to the threats and challenges Europe is faced with these days.

The external problems concern first of all the geopolitical threats at the external borders, such as the Russia/Ukraine crisis, the ongoing conflicts in the Middle East, the anti-democratic tendencies in Turkey and the unrest in Northern Africa. Other references are migration, combat of terrorism, climate change and -since Donald Trump took office- the relationship with the United States. The internal problems are related to the economic crisis, the impact migration has on national societies, populism and the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the EU ('Brexit').

Common action to counter these threats and challenges is highly needed. However, EU cooperation is essentially a voluntary process, whereas the problems referred to concern politically highly sensitive issues. Moreover, new steps in the integration process require consensus between all the Member States. In view of the increasing number of Member States and the heterogeneity which has gradually arisen between them, such a requirement is difficult to attain.

Therefore, concrete proposals for more flexible and differentiated cooperation are presented. They vary from models of enhanced cooperation, the establishment of an EU Security Council, to simplification of the ordinary treaty amendment procedure.

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